建筑工人在建筑工地工作的人

公正过渡能解决气候变化和社会不平等问题吗?

  • 2021年11月15日
  • 类别: 弹性

If there was one lesson COVID-19 taught us, it’s that inequality is pervasive

大流行证明了这一点, 低收入和处于社会边缘地位的人群在自然灾害发生时能够保护自己的资源更少,而属于这些人群的工人是第一个面临失业和其他经济挫折的人(见图1)。. 气候变化也不例外.

图1:不列颠哥伦比亚省按工资等级划分的就业水平

不列颠哥伦比亚省按工资等级划分的就业水平
Source: BC Real Estate Association; Stats Canada, July 2021

为了应对这一大流行病, 许多政策制定者呼吁全球城市确保绿色和公正的复苏——一个推翻长期存在的社会和经济不平等的复苏. 为C40认为, 他说:“经济复苏不应该回到‘一切如常’的状态,因为世界经济的过热程度将会上升3摄氏度.”

With this in mind, what’s the next step for cities as we champion a just transition? Or perhaps we can take a step back: what is the just transition, why should you care?

图2:C40市长的绿色和公正复苏议程

  • 经济复苏应 不是回到“一切如常” 因为这意味着世界将会有3摄氏度的过热.
  • The recovery, above all, must be guided by an adherence to public health and scientific expertise,以确保我们城市居民的安全.
  • Excellent public services, public investment and increased community resilience 会成为经济复苏最有效的基础吗.
  • 复苏必须解决股权问题 例如,危机的影响已经暴露了这一点, 现在被认为是必不可少的工人应该得到表彰和相应的补偿,政策必须支持生活在非正式住区的人们.
  • 复苏必须提高我们城市和社区的复原力. 因此, 应进行投资,以保护人们免受未来的威胁——包括气候危机——并支持那些受气候和健康风险影响的人.
  • Climate action can help accelerate economic recovery and enhance social equity, through the use of new technologies and the creation of new industries and new jobs. These will drive wider benefits four our residents, workers, students, businesses and visitors.
  • We commit to doing everything in our power and the power of our city governments to ensure that 从COVID-19中恢复是健康、公平和可持续的.
  • 我们承诺用我们的集体声音和个人行动来 ensure that national governments support both cities and the investments needed in cities, to deliver an economic recovery that is healthy, equitable and sustainable.
  • 我们承诺用我们的集体声音和个人行动来 ensure that international and regional institutions invest directly in cities 支持健康、公平和可持续的复苏.

资料来源:C40, 2021年

自2015年《万博3.0安卓客户端下载》通过以来,“公正过渡”的概念被使用得越来越频繁. 在2021年加拿大联邦选举期间,我们看到 英文领导人的争论 focus on climate change, economic diversification and a responsible transition. 国际机构,如联合国 国际劳工组织, C40, 经济合作与发展组织 – have all published numerous research and reports related to the just transition. But while the just transition is seeing a resurgence, the idea isn’t new. 它已经存在了几十年.

一个想法的诞生

“公正过渡”一词起源于20世纪70年代, 当托尼Mazzocchi, 在石油行业工作的工会成员, 化学和原子工人工会, 在与壳牌公司的安全和健康问题斗争中,他寻求了环保组织的帮助. 集体, they advocated for action to address workers’ livelihoods and preservation of the natural environment. 从那时起, the use of a just transition has evolved to suit environmental justice and/or labour needs.

什么是公正的过渡?

Throughout the years, multiple definitions of “just transition” have emerged. 然而, 在研究和编写了几篇文献综述之后, 万博客户端官网下载经济委员会(万博客户端官网下载)认为最准确的定义结合了加拿大政策选择中心(CCPA)的工作, 斯坦利基金会, 以及C40城市气候领导小组. For the purposes of this project, 万博客户端官网下载 defines a just transition for Vancouver as:

“……一种包容工人的方法,旨在最大限度地减少环境政策对受影响行业工人的影响. 另外, 公正的过渡将走向一个公平的未来, 确保“绿色经济”中的新机遇将包括那些以前被排除在高碳经济之外的国家. 当每个人都有社会保障时,就实现了公正的过渡, 所有的工作都是体面的, 排放量很低或为零, 社区正在蓬勃发展,恢复力也在增强.”

然而,对于公正的过渡并没有普遍的方法, there are two broad types of planning this work has engaged with: environmental justice and climate action.

  • 环境正义 来自美国反种族主义的工作, 有色人种社区主张拆除通过污染对居民产生负面影响的机构或设施, 浪费, 以及其他环境影响. 围绕着公正过渡的环境正义强调需要进行变革性社会变革,解决长期存在的社会不平等问题.
  • 一个气候行动 公正过渡的方法更狭隘地关注那些面临失业或其他与气候变化相关的负面经济影响的工人. While generally rooted in a moral call to protect the rights of workers and communities, 只是过渡工作 may prioritize climate-related impacts and policy considerations, 而不是一个更大的改革议程.
“刚刚过渡”一词源于劳工运动,对于那些有好工作的人来说,这是很有意义的,他们希望通过采取气候行动来确保自己保持良好的工资和福利. 然而, 许多未加入工会的工人仍在寻求向正义过渡:真正的正义过渡不仅是一个创造支持气候行动的经济的机会,也是一个支持人民的经济.”

安德里亚·雷蒙, Founder and Principal of Tawâw Strategies, former three-term Vancouver councilor (2008-2018)

万博客户端官网下载如何在公正的转型中成为全球领导者?

过去在过渡规划方面所作的努力已在 CCPA BC的研究 as governments “throwing money at the problem” with little planning or foresight. Going forward, local governments need to be prepared to play a leading role in 只是过渡工作. “城市处于最前线,C40城市承认, a leading coalition of mayors of big cites – including Vancouver – taking urgent action on climate change. “Cities are both where the problems are most serious and where the solutions are being found.”

2020年,万博客户端官网下载市批准了 气候紧急行动计划 (CEAP), positioning Vancouver to reach a 50 percent reduction of carbon pollution by 2030. 具体地说, CEAP calls for the creation of a “Zero Emissions Economic Transition Action Plan” (ZEETAP), 旨在“确定和追求[CEAP]产生的经济利益”和“为受气候行动过渡影响的工人提供公正的过渡”,以确保健康的经济和清洁的环境能够共存.

加拿大和世界各地的大部分过渡工作都集中在依赖煤炭的经济和农村社区. 然而, Vancouver’s economic landscape is distinctive – we have one of the most decarbonized economies in Canada. 通过实现一个成功的公正过渡, 我们准备成为一个公正的过渡领导人,不仅仅是在加拿大, 但在全球范围内.

对万博客户端官网下载的工人来说,公正的过渡意味着什么?

建筑和汽车行业是万博客户端官网下载和都会万博客户端官网下载温室气体排放量最大的两个行业,它们面临着一个庞大而分散的就业领域. 因为这个, 这些部门的公正过渡必须考虑到没有工会或其他组织代表的独立工人.

“Energy transition will create many new industries but it will also lead to contraction of other industries,桑迪普·派解释道, the Centre for Strategic and International Studies’ senior research lead. “But when an industry declines, there are seen and unseen impacts on local communities. These impacts can range from job losses, revenue losses to loss of social spending. 因此, any just transition would require planning for all categories of impacted stakeholders.”

在应对技能和劳动力短缺的过程中,这些行业实现公正转型所面临的挑战可能会被放大. 因为退休工人的人数在增加, 更年轻和多元化的工人(尤其是女性和有色人种)对进入这些行业和行业感到舒适的人数在减少. +, 许多没有工会或其他组织代表的独立工人在提供劳动力转移支持时可能会被忽视.

“A just transition to a green economy [in Vancouver] requires us to think about all workers,艾琳·兰青格说, 前不列颠哥伦比亚省劳工联合会主席. “Workers are on a spectrum of job quality – some workers have great jobs and will keep them; some workers will lose good jobs in dirty industries, 他们需要选择和支持. 我们需要为那些在当前就业市场中被边缘化和排斥在外的工人提供机会. Most workers that will need help are in low-wage jobs with no benefits and limited prospects. 当我们计划我们的未来, 我们要让每个人都有受教育的机会, training and a good job – one with family-supporting wages and benefits in a sustainable economic system.”

下一步在万博客户端官网下载实现一个公正的过渡

Since the discussion of a just transition has only recently gained local traction, 还有许多工作要做. With so few successful case studies outside of coal or fossil-fuel reliant communities, there are many gaps in research and understanding that 万博客户端官网下载 and others can address moving forward, 包括:

  1. 在万博客户端官网下载将环境正义和“向正义过渡”纳入劳动力市场规划的方法, 更好地服务那些已经, 继续面对, 各种形式的边缘化.
  2. 了解万博客户端官网下载Metro的过渡规划和方法将如何影响不列颠哥伦比亚省的其他地区.
  3. Understanding how to engage the finance sector in just transition planning, 特别是大型机构投资者.
  4. 确定利用和配合地方或省级现有工作的方法,这些工作可能没有列入, 但仍然与, 只是过渡工作, 如 CleanBC工作准备计划,是工业训练局的 熟练行业认证项目, 万博客户端官网下载地区建设协会 (VRCA)明日建筑工人项目.
  5. 与当地的教育委员会合作, 和高等教育机构, to review and audit programs and courses of significance for decarbonization; and to conduct future labour market projections of the green economy and integrate these in clear, 方便工人沟通.

万博客户端官网下载公正过渡的最佳实践

This report features a high-level definition of what a just transition could mean for Vancouver. 阅读它的司法管辖权概述的公正过渡实践, 分析全球个案研究, 城市两个排放最高的行业(交通和建筑)即将迎来劳工转型的背景, governance recommendations for the next steps forward in our region.

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